The State Memorial and Natural Preserve "Museum-estate of Leo Tolstoy "Yasnaya Polyana"
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Mansurovo Estate (also called Dubrovka)


Mansurovo is the newest of all the branches of the Yasnaya Polyana Museum; it was included in the museum’s structure in 2008. But in fact, the estate of Mansurovo (located near the village of Mansurovo in the Maloyaroslavets District of the Kaluga Region) has a history of about 400 years. Thus, it is among the oldest country estates in the Kaluga Region. 

Mansurovo got its name from the last name of its first owners – the Mansurovs, who represented an old aristocratic family; they owned the estate from the second quarter of the 17th century. In the early 19th century the owners of Mansurovo changed, and it got another name – Dubrovka. The village still officially bears this name.

Dubrovka is a well-preserved estate built in the classical style. Its architectural ensemble was constructed in the second half of the 18th – early 19th centuries. All the buildings of the front yard are built of brick and plastered. The ensemble of the central (front) part of the estate has changed very little since it was reconstructed in the 19th century. The front yard is a symmetrical composition formed by the manor house and 4 smaller houses (wings). The manor house is a three-storied stone building, facing the front yard, with a cast metal fence with gates on its northern side.   

The park of the estate is also well preserved. It is an English landscape park; in the late 18th – early 19th centuries a combination of such parks and fruit orchards was very popular in the Russian country estates. Even in the 18th century the estate’s orchard must have been quite large, as a special “apple pantry” with a cellar was built near the house.   


The last owner of the estate was Leo Tolstoy’s son Ilya Tolstoy. He bought Mansurovo in 1901 (from the merchants Krylov and Baskakov). He lived here with his family and was engaged in farming: he sowed grain crops, ordered new agricultural machines from abroad, raised livestock, grew fruit orchards, and took care of the landscape park. There were constantly many guests and relatives staying at the estate.  

Ilya had a close-knit family, with many interests in common. His wife Sophia (nee Philosophova) was a talented musician and she managed to inculcate a love for music in her children. Their youngest children were born in Dubrovka (Vera in 1903 and Kirill in 1907), and in 1908 the wedding of their eldest daughter Anna was celebrated here. Both daughters were known as talented singers, performing Russian and Gypsy romances: Anna in Kaluga and in Moscow, and Vera in Paris (in emigration).

The family also loved painting. One of the rooms on the second floor of the old manor house was turned into an art studio. They called it “Baturin’s room”, as the artist Victor Baturin used to come here. He tutored Ilya and his elder children in painting.

The happy life of the family at Mansurovo ended in 1914. Ilya and his eldest sons, Mikhail and Andrei, went to the front, another son, Ilya, studied in St. Petersburg, and Vladimir and Vera lived with their mother in Kaluga. Anna also lived in Kaluga with her family; she had a five-year-old son by that time. Ilya Tolstoy himself was in the USA in 1917 when the February Revolution happened; in the autumn of 1917 he visited Moscow and St. Petersburg, and then finally left for the US, where he lived the rest of his life and died in 1933.

In 1919 the Mansurovo estate was nationalized. The land was given to the local agricultural cooperative. Later (probably, from 1922) the estate accommodated an orphanage.

Now the Mansurovo estate is among historical and architectural monuments of national significance and is under the jurisdiction of the Yasnaya Polyana Museum-estate. After the restoration work is finished, museum exhibitions and a cultural center are planned to be created here. 


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